Push and Pull Factors Driving Victims of Human Trafficking Toward Middle East Countries: The Case of Victims Moving out of Ethiopia via the Eastern Route

Tuse Dita, Boyosa Tesfaye, Teshome Wondu


The continuation and escalation of human trafficking has become a challenging problem for the world community who tries to stem its flow. People move from one part to another part of the world either lured by the booming economy elsewhere or to escape the deterioration of life in their home country. This study is conducted to highlight factors   driving victims of human trafficking from Ethiopia via the eastern route of the country to cross the borders. The study focuses on the situation of returnee victims of human trafficking and partially household heads. Snow ball sampling techniques was employed and 36 returnee victims participated. In addition 10 household heads of victims were interviewed. The researchers employed simple statistics (frequency and percentage), interpretation, and conceptual generalization to analyze data. The results showed that unemployment, pressure from family and friends; false promises of better job opportunity, contributed at varying degrees.  On the basis of these findings, we recommend the launching of an awareness raising campaign on trafficking dangers with the participation of experienced former victims of trafficking together with organizing entrepreneurship skills training for local people based on existing opportunities and resources in their areas.

Received 25th December 2017; Revised 18th July 2018; Accepted 10th October 2018


Pull; push; human trafficking; Middle East.

Full Text:

 Subscribers Only


Alexis.A. 2009. Human Trafficking, Human Misery: The Global Trade in Human Beings. London, Praeger Publishers. www.praeger.com

Biernacki.P and Waldorf.D.1981.Snowball Sampiling Method: Problems and Techniques of chain referral sampling, San Francisco State University

Birhan Asmame. 2011. Causes and consequences of rural-urban migration: The case of Woldya town, North Ethiopia. Unpublished M.A Thesis. The University of South Africa.

Cho, S.-Y. 2012. “Modeling for Determinants of Human Trafficking”. Economics of Security Working Paper 70, Berlin: Economics of Security.

Crowe S. and Hollis .B. 2015. Report on Slavery and Human Trafficking. Ariel Foundation international February 2015.

Emebet, K. 2003. An Assessment of international labor migration situation: The case study of female labor migrants. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour, Office.

Gudetu, W. 2014. Causes and Consequences of Human Trafficking in Ethiopia: The case of Women in the Middle East.

Hepburn.S. 2016. Technology and Human Trafficking National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors Alexandria, Virginia.

Gollust, D. 2009 Combating human Trafficking critical state department Washington DC.

International center for migration policy development (ICMPD).2007.Mediterranean Transit Migration. Available at www.imap.migration.org.

ILO. 2017. Promote Effective Labour Migration Governance in Ethiopia: Program Achievements.

International Organization for Migration (IOM). 2014. Activity report –Yemen

ILO. 2008. ILO Action against Trafficking in Human Beings: International labor Force Geneva

Marchand.K.Roosen.I. Roosen.J. and Siegel .M. 2016. Irregular Migration from and in the East and Horn of Africa Maastricht University

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). 2005. Addressing the Root Causes of Trafficking. www.osce.org/documents/pc/2005/07/15594/-en.pdf.

Regional mixed migration Secretariat (RRMS). 2013. Migrant Smuggling in the Horn of

Africa & Yemen: the social economy and protection risk.

Stangoska. A and Petervsk .B. 2015. Theory of Push and Pull Factors: A new way explaining the old. University of “st.kliment Ohridski“ Bitola.

The Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat. 2013. Migrant Smuggling in the Horn of Africa & Yemen: the social economy and protection risks. Westlands, Nairobi, Kenya.

Transparency International. 2011. Corruption and Human Trafficking. Berlin Germany.

Tsehay, B. 2003. Research and communication strategy definition: Be informed: Countering trafficking through information. Addis Ababa: IOM Special Liaison, Mission United nation human Right office of High commission 2014 New York and Geneva.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime(UNODC). 2014. The socio-Economic Impacts of Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling in Pakistan.

United Nations Office of the Higher Commission. 2014. Human Rights and Human Trafficking. New York and Geneva

UNHCR. 2012. Smuggling and Trafficking From the East and Horn Of Africa.

Yoseph .E. Mebratu.G. and Belete .R. 2006. Assessment of trafficking in women and children in and from Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: IOM Special Liaison Mission.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/vjossh.v4i5.399


  • There are currently no refbacks.



Trường Đại học Khoa học Xã hội và Nhân văn

Đại học Quốc gia Hà Nội

ISSN 2354-1172